There are a number of specific health hazards from chemicals covered by CLP-GHS.
The effects include “systemic toxicity”, that is whole-body poisoning effects (which can cover a wide range of effects from feeling mildly unwell to dying) through:
- Inhalation (breathing in the chemical) by gas, vapour or dusts and mists
- Ingestion (swallowing the chemical)
- Skin contact (touching the chemical, being splashed by it etc)
There is also “specific target organic toxicity”, which affects one or more organs, but not the body as a whole. Cancer, or carcinogenic effects, are also on specific organs, but form a separate hazard class to “specific target organ toxicity”, which refers to non-cancer toxicity.
There are effects due to corrosion and irritancy, which mainly affect skin, eyes and lungs, and can occur from skin contact or inhalation. (Corrosive if swallowed is implicit in CLP rather than explicit). Note that corrosive to skin also implies corrosive to eyes (H314 implies H318), but that irritant to skin (H315) is a separate hazard from irritant to eyes (H319).
There are also effects on the reproductive system, which can include genetic effects on sperm and egg, effects on the unborn child, effects on fertility, and hazards which can be passed from a nursing mother to a feeding baby, which can be from any exposure route.
There are some CLP-only EUH hazards for the label, which cover specific hazards from mixtures containing certain substances.effects if swallowed v1.1
Effects if swallowed (click to download pdf)skin only effects v1.1
Skin only effects (click to download pdf)respiratory effects v1.3
Respiratory effects (click to download pdf)Three different types of inhalation infographic
Three different inhalation types (click to download pdf)skin and eye effects v1.1
Skin and eye effects (click to download pdf)Eye effects v1.1
Eye effects (click to download pdf)Carcinogen effects
Carcinogen effects (click to download pdf)Mutagenicity v1.2 19-08-2019
Germ cell mutagenicity (click to download pdf)Reproductive system v2.2
Reproductive system (click to download pdf)specific target organ effects v1.2
Specific target organ effects (click to download pdf)EUH statements health hazards of mixtures
CLP only – health hazards of mixtures containing specific substances (click to download pdf)